第5课 什么是计量基础?

 CPA英语     |      2022-10-30 10:37
Lesson 5: What Are Measurement Bases?
1. Definition of Measurement Basis /计量基础的定义
Elements recognized in financial statements are quantified (1) in monetary terms. This requires the selection of a measurement basis (2). A measurement basis is an identified feature—for example, historical cost, fair value or fulfilment value—of an item being measured. Applying a measurement basis to (3) an asset or liability creates a measure (4) for that asset or liability and for related income and expenses.
财务报表中确认的要素以货币形式量化,这就要求选择一个计量基础。计量基础是指被计量项目的一项已识别特征,例如历史成本、公允价值或履约价值等。对某一资产或负债应用计量基础也就是为该资产或负债以及相关收益和费用创建一个计量。
2. Classification of Measurement Bases/计量基础的分类
2.1 Historical Cost/历史成本
Historical cost measures (5) provide monetary information about assets, liabilities and related income and expenses, using information derived, at least in part, from (6) the price of the transaction or other event that gave rise to (7) them. Unlike current value (8), historical cost does not reflect changes in values, except to the extent that (9) those changes relate to impairment (10) of an asset or a liability becoming onerous (11).
历史成本计量,利用产生资产、负债及相关收入和费用的交易或其他事项的价格所获取的信息(至少部分信息),提供有关资产、负债及相关收入和费用的货币信息。与现行价值不同,历史成本不反映价值变动,除非这些变动与资产减值或负债繁重有关。

The historical cost of an asset when it is acquired or created is the value of the costs incurred in acquiring or creating the asset, comprising the consideration (12) paid to acquire or create the asset plus transaction costs. The historical cost of a liability when it is incurred or taken on is the value of the consideration received to incur or take on the liability (13) minus transaction costs.
资产在被购建时的历史成本是构建该资产所产生的成本价值,包括为购建该资产所支付的对价加上交易成本。负债在发生或承担时的历史成本是发生或承担该负债所收到的对价减去交易成本的价值。

2.2 Current Value/现行价值
Current value measures (14) provide monetary information about assets, liabilities and related income and expenses, using information updated (15) to reflect conditions at the measurement date (16). Because of the updating (15), current values of assets and liabilities reflect changes, since the previous measurement date, in estimates of cash flows and other factors reflected in those current values. Unlike historical cost, the current value of an asset or liability is not derived, even in part, from the price of the transaction or other event that gave rise to the asset or liability.
现行价值计量,利用能反映计量日具体状况的更新信息,提供有关资产、负债和相关收入和费用的货币信息。由于已做了信息更新,资产和负债的现行价值反映自上一个计量日以来对这些现行价值中所反映的现金流量和其他因素估计的变动情况。与历史成本不同的是,资产或负债的现行价值并非来自(甚至并非部分来自)形成该资产或负债的交易或其他事项的价格。

Current value measurement bases include:
  • (a) fair value (17);
  • (b) value in use (18) for assets and fulfilment value (19) for liabilities; and
  • (c) current cost (20).
现行价值计量基础包括:
  • (1) 公允价值;
  • (2) 资产的使用价值和负债的履约价值;以及
  • (3) 现行成本。

(1) Fair Value/公允价值
Fair value is the price that would be received to sell an asset, or paid to transfer a liability, in an orderly transaction (21) between market participants (22) at the measurement date. Fair value reflects the perspective (23) of market participants—participants in a market to which the entity has access (24). The asset or liability is measured using the same assumptions that market participants would use when pricing the asset or liability if those market participants act in their economic best interest (25).
公允价值是指市场参与者之间在计量日进行的有序交易中,出售一项资产所能收到或转移一项负债所需支付的价格。公允价值反映了主体可进入的市场中市场参与者的预期。资产或负债在计量时,应采用市场参与者在对该资产或负债定价时使用的相同假设,即市场参与者以实现其经济利益最大化为目标的假设。

(2) Value in Use and Fulfilment Value/使用价值和履约价值
Value in use is the present value (26) of the cash flows, or other economic benefits, that an entity expects to derive from the use of an asset and from its ultimate disposal. Fulfilment value is the present value of the cash, or other economic resources, that an entity expects to be obliged to (27) transfer as it fulfils a liability (28). Those amounts of cash or other economic resources include not only the amounts to be transferred to the liability counterparty (29), but also the amounts that the entity expects to be obliged to transfer to other parties to enable it to fulfil the liability. Because value in use and fulfilment value are based on future cash flows, they do not include transaction costs incurred on acquiring an asset or taking on a liability. However, value in use and fulfilment value include the present value of any transaction costs an entity expects to incur on the ultimate disposal (30) of the asset or on fulfilling the liability.
使用价值是指主体预期从使用资产和最终处置中取得的现金流量或其他经济利益的现值。履约价值是指主体预期履行负债时有义务转移的现金或其他经济资源的现值。这些现金或其他经济资源不仅包括将转移给负债对手方的金额,还包括主体预期有义务转移给其他方以使其履行负债的金额。由于使用价值和履约价值均以未来现金流量为基础,所以它们不包括取得资产或承担负债时产生的交易成本。然而,使用价值和履行价值包括主体预期在最终处置资产或履行负债时产生的交易成本的现值。

(3) Current Cost/现行成本
The current cost of an asset is the cost of an equivalent asset (31) at the measurement date, comprising the consideration that would be paid at the measurement date plus the transaction costs that would be incurred at that date. The current cost of a liability is the consideration that would be received for an equivalent liability at the measurement date minus the transaction costs that would be incurred at that date. Current cost, like historical cost, is an entry value (32): it reflects prices in the market in which the entity would acquire the asset or would incur the liability. Hence, it is different from fair value, value in use and fulfilment value, which are exit values (33). However, unlike historical cost, current cost reflects conditions at the measurement date.
资产的现行成本是指在计量日取得一项同等资产的成本,包括应在计量日支付的对价加上在计量日可能发生的交易成本。负债的现行成本是指在计量日形成一项同等负债所收到的对价减去在计量日可能产生的交易成本。现行成本与历史成本一样,是一种进入价值:它反映了主体在市场中取得资产或承担负债的价格。因此,现行成本与公允价值、使用价值和履约价值不同,后三者均为脱手价值。然而,与历史成本不同的是,现行成本反映的是计量日的具体状况。

3. Key Words and Expressions/重要词汇与表达
  • 1. quantify (v.) 量化
  • 2. measurement basis 计量基础(单数), measurement bases 计量基础(复数)
  • 3. to apply A to B 将A应用于B
  • 4. measure (n.) 计量,手法
  • 5. historical cost measure 历史成本计量
  • 6. to derive from… v. 由…派生,来自…
  • 7. to give rise to… 引起,产生…
  • 8. current value (n.) 现行价值
  • 9. except to the extent that… 除非…;但…除外
  • 10. impairment (n.) 减值
  • 11. onerous (adj.) 繁重的,艰巨的
  • 12. consideration (n.) 对价
  • 13. to take on a liability 承担负债
  • 14. current value measure 现行价值计量
  • 15. update (v.) 更新
  • 16. measurement date 计量日
  • 17. fair value 公允价值
  • 18. value in use 使用价值
  • 19. fulfilment value 履约价值
  • 20. current cost 现行成本
  • 21. orderly transaction 有序交易
  • 22. market participant 市场参与者
  • 23. perspective (n.) 预期,观点
  • 24. to have access to… 可进入
  • 25. to act in one’s economic best interest 实现经济利益最大化
  • 26. present value 现值
  • 27. to be obliged to do sth. 有义务做某事
  • 28. to fulfil a liability 履行负债
  • 29. liability counterparty 债务对手方
  • 30. ultimate disposal 最终处置
  • 31. equivalent asset 同等资产
  • 32. entry value 进入价值
  • 33. exit value 脱手价值