第2课:什么是高质量的财务信息?

 CPA英语     |      2022-10-30 10:33
Lesson 2: What Is High Quality Financial Information?

学习目的/Objectives
  1. 1. 了解有用的财务信息的两个基本质量特征:相关性和如实反映;
  2. 2. 了解相关性的两个主要价值:预测价值和证实价值;
  3. 3. 了解如实反映的三个基本特征:完整、中立和无误;
  4. 4. 了解财务信息的四个提升性质量特征:可比性、可验证性、及时性和可理解性;
  5. 5. 学习本课内容所涉及的重要财会英语词汇及表达式。

课程内容/Text Content

The qualitative characteristics (1) of useful financial information discussed in this lesson identify (2) the types of information that are likely to be most useful to the existing and potential investors, lenders and other creditors for making decisions about the reporting entity on the basis of (3) information in its financial report (financial information).
【译文】本课所讨论的有用的财务信息的质量特征,界定了什么样的信息类型对于现有和潜在的投资者、贷款人和其他债权人来说是最有用的,以便他们根据财务报告中的信息(即财务信息)对报告主体做出相关的决策。

Qualitative Characteristics of Useful Financial Information
有用的财务信息的质量特征

If financial information is to be useful, it must be relevant (4) and faithfully represent (5) what it purports (6) to represent. The usefulness of financial information is enhanced if it is comparable, verifiable, timely and understandable.
【译文】如果财务信息是有用的,它必须具有相关性,并能够如实反映它所要反映的内容。如果财务信息具有可比性、可验证性、及时性和可理解性,那么它的有用性就会得以提升。

Part One: Fundamental Qualitative Characteristics
第一部分:基本的质量特征

The fundamental qualitative characteristics are relevance (4) and faithful representation (5).
基本的质量特征是相关性和如实反映。

Relevance
相关性

Relevant financial information is capable of (7) making a difference in the decisions made by users. Financial information is capable of making a difference in decisions if it has predictive (8) value, confirmatory (9) value or both. Financial information has predictive value if it can be used as an input to processes (10) employed by users to predict (8) future outcomes. Financial information has confirmatory value if it provides feedback about (confirms (9) or changes) previous evaluations. The predictive value and confirmatory value of financial information are interrelated (11). Information that has predictive value often also has confirmatory value. For example, revenue information for the current year, which can be used as the basis for predicting revenues in future years, can also be compared with (12) revenue predictions for the current year that were made in past years. The results of those comparisons (12) can help a user to correct and improve the processes that were used to make those previouspredictions.
【译文】相关的财务信息能够对使用者的决策产生影响。如果财务信息具有预测价值、证实价值或两者兼有,那么它就能够对决策产生影响。如果财务信息被使用者用作预测未来结果的流程中的输入值,那么它就具有预测价值。如果财务信息对前期的评估提供了反馈(证实或更改),那么它就具有证实价值。财务信息的预测价值和证实价值是相互关联的。具有预测价值的信息往往也具有证实价值。例如,本年度的收入信息,可以作为预测未来年度收入的基础,也可以与以前年度对本年度的收入预测进行比较。这些比较的结果可以帮助使用者修正和改进以前用于预测的流程。

Faithful representation
如实反映

Financial reports represent economic phenomena (13) in words and numbers. To be useful, financial information must not only represent relevant phenomena, but it must also faithfully represent the substance (14) of the phenomena that it purports to represent. To be a perfectly faithful representation, a depiction (15) would have three characteristics. It would be complete, neutral and free from error.
【译文】财务报告用文字和数字来反映经济现象。为了达到有用的目的,财务信息不仅必须反映相关的现象,而且还要如实地反映它所要表现的现象的实质。为了完美地如实反映,描述将具备三个特征:完整、中立和无误。

A complete (16) depiction includes all information necessary for a user to understand the phenomenon being depicted, including all necessary descriptions and explanations.
【译文】完整描述包括使用者为了理解被描述的现象所需的全部信息,包括所有必要的说明和解释。

A neutral (17) depiction is without bias (18) in the selection or presentation of financial information. Neutrality (17) is supported by the exercise of prudence. Prudence (19) is the exercise of caution when making judgements under conditions of uncertainty (20). The exercise of prudence means that assets and income are not overstated (21) and liabilities and expenses are not understated (22) . Equally, the exercise of prudence does not allow for the understatement (21) of assets or income or the overstatement (22) of liabilities or expenses. Such misstatements (23) can lead to the overstatement or understatement of income or expenses in future periods.
【译文】中立描述是指在选择或表述财务信息时没有偏见。中立得到了审慎行事的支持。谨慎是指在不确定的条件下做判断时慎重行事。审慎行事意味着资产和收入不被夸大,负债和费用不被低估。同样,审慎行事也不允许少报资产或收入,或多报负债或费用。这种错报会导致未来期间收入或费用的高估或低估。

Free from error (24) means there are no errors or omissions (25) in the description of the phenomenon, and the process used to produce the reported information has been selected and applied with no errors in the process. In this context (26), free from error does not mean perfectly accurate in all respects (27). For example, an estimate of an unobservable price or value cannot be determined to be accurate or inaccurate. However, a representation of that estimate can be faithful if the amount is described clearly and accurately as being an estimate (28), the nature and limitations of the estimating (28) process are explained, and no errors have been made in selecting and applying an appropriate process for developing the estimate.
【译文】无误是指对现象的描述中没有错误或遗漏,用于制作报告信息的流程是经过选择和应用的,过程中没有错误。在这种情况下,无误并不意味着在所有方面都完全准确。例如,对一个观察不到的价格或价值的估计不能被确定为准确或不准确。然而,如果该金额被清晰准确地描述为一个估计值,该估计流程的性质和局限性得以说明,而且在选择和应用适当的估计流程过程中没有出错,那么该估计值就可以说成是如实反映。

Part Two: Enhancing qualitative characteristics
第二部分:提升性质量特征

Comparability (29), verifiability (30), timeliness (31) and understandability (32) are qualitative characteristics that enhance the usefulness of information that both is relevant and provides a faithful representation of what it purports to represent. The enhancing qualitative characteristics (33) may also help determine which of two ways should be used to depict a phenomenon if both are considered to provide equally relevant information and an equally faithful representation of that phenomenon.
可比性、可验证性、及时性和可理解性是提升财务信息有用性的质量特征,这些财务信息既是相关的,又能如实反映所要表达的内容。如果有两种方式被认为是提供了同样相关的信息并同样如实地反映了某一现象,那么提升性质量特征也可以帮助确定应该从两者中选择哪一种方式来描述某一现象。

Comparability
可比性

Users’ decisions involve choosing between alternatives (34), for example, selling or holding an investment, or investing in one reporting entity or another. Consequently, information about a reporting entity is more useful if it can be compared with similar information about other entities and with similar information about the same entity for another period or another date.
使用者的决策涉及在可选项目之间进行选择,例如,出售或持有某项投资,或投资某一个或另一个报告主体。因此,如果某一报告主体的信息能够与其他主体的类似信息相比较,以及同一个主体能与另一时期或另一日期的类似信息相比较,那么该信息就更加有用。

Verifiability
可验证性

Verifiability helps assure (35) users that information faithfully represents the economic phenomena it purports to represent. Verifiability means that different knowledgeable (36) and independent observers (37) could reach consensus (38), although not necessarily complete agreement, that a particular depiction is a faithful representation. Verification (39) can be direct or indirect. Direct verification means verifying (39) an amount or other representation through direct observation (40) , for example, by counting cash (41). Indirect verification means checking the inputs to a model, formula or other technique and recalculating the outputs using the same methodology (42). An example is verifying the carrying amount of inventory by checking the inputs (quantities and costs) and recalculating the ending inventory (43) using the same cost flow assumption (44) (for example, using the first-in, first-out method) (45).
可验证性可以帮助使用者确信信息如实地反映了所要反映的经济现象。可验证性意味着具备必要知识的不同独立的观察者可以就某一特定描述是否如实反映达成共识,尽管并不一定完全一致。验证可以是直接的或是间接的。直接验证是指通过直接观察来验证某一金额或其他表述,例如通过盘点现金。间接验证是指检查某一模型、公式或其他技术的输入值,并使用相同的方法重新计算输出值。例如,通过检查输入值(数量和成本)并使用相同的成本流转假设(例如采用先进先出法)重新计算期末存货来核实库存的账面金额。

Timeliness
及时性

Timeliness means having information available to decision-makers in time to be capable of influencing their decisions. Generally, the older the information is the less useful it is. However, some information may continue to be timely long after the end of a reporting period because, for example, some users may need to identify and assess trends.
及时性是指及时向决策者提供信息,以便能够影响他们的决策。一般来说,信息越陈旧,其作用就越小。然而,有些信息在报告期结束后的很长一段时间内仍然是及时的,例如,有些使用者可能需要识别并评估趋势。

Understandability
可理解性

Classifying (46), characterising (47) and presenting information clearly and concisely makes it understandable (32).
简洁明了地对信息进行分类、定性和列报,使信息易于理解。

Some phenomena are inherently (48) complex and cannot be made easy to understand. Excluding (49) information about those phenomena from financial reports might make the information in those financial reports easier to understand. However, those reports would be incomplete and therefore possibly misleading (50).
有些现象本身就很复杂,不易让人理解。从财务报告中剔除有关这些现象的信息可能会使该财务报告中的信息更容易理解。然而,这些报告将会变得不够完整,因而可能会具有误导性。

Financial reports are prepared for users who have a reasonable knowledge of business and economic activities and who review and analyse the information diligently. At times (51), even well-informed and diligent users may need to seek the aid of (52) an adviser to understand information about complex economic phenomena.
财务报告是为了那些对商业和经济活动有合理的了解且能认真审阅和分析信息的使用者而编制的。有时,即使是消息灵通、勤奋的使用者也可能需要寻求顾问的帮助来理解有关复杂经济现象的信息。

重要词汇和表达式
Key Words and Expressions
  1. 1. qualitative characteristics 质量特征
  2. 2. identify (v.) 界定,识别,分辨
  3. 3. on the basis of… 根据,依据...
  4. 4. relevant (adj.) 相关的; relevance (n.) 相关性
  5. 5. faithful representation 如实反映(名词短语);to faithfully present 如实反映(动词短语)
  6. 6. purport (v.) 想要
  7. 7. to be capable of + doing 能够(做…)
  8. 8. predictive (adj.) 预测的;predict (v.) 预测;prediction (n.) 预测
  9. 9. confirmatory (adj.) 证实的,确定的;confirm (v.) 证实,确认
  10. 10. process (n.) 流程,过程
  11. 11. interrelate (v.) 相互关联
  12. 12. compare with… 与…相比;comparison (n.) 比较
  13. 13. phenomena 现象
  14. 14. substance 实质
  15. 15. depiction (n.) 描述;depict (v.) 描述
  16. 16. complete (adj.) 完整的
  17. 17. neutral (adj.) 中立的;neutrality (n.) 中立,中性
  18. 18. without bias 没有偏见
  19. 19. prudence 谨慎,审慎
  20. 20. under conditions of uncertainty 在不确定的情况下
  21. 21. overstate (v.) 高估;overstatement (n.) 高估
  22. 22. understate (v.) 低估;understatement (n.) 低估
  23. 23. misstatement (n.) 错报
  24. 24. free from error 无误
  25. 25. no errors or omissions 没有错误或遗漏
  26. 26. in this context 在这种情况下
  27. 27. in all respects 在所有方面
  28. 28. estimate (n.) 估计值;estimate (v.) 估计
  29. 29. comparability (n.) 可比性
  30. 30. verifiability (n.) 可验证性
  31. 31. timeliness (n.) 及时性
  32. 32. understandability (n.) 可理解性; understandable (adj.) 可理解的;易懂的
  33. 33. enhancing qualitative characteristics 提升性质量特征
  34. 34. alternatives 可供选择的项目
  35. 35. assure (v.) 使确信
  36. 36. knowledgeable (adj.) 具备必要知识的
  37. 37. independent observers 独立观察者
  38. 38. to reach consensus 达成一致
  39. 39. verification (n.) 验证;verify (v.) 验证,核实
  40. 40. observation (n.) 观察
  41. 41. to count cash 盘点现金
  42. 42. methodology (n.) 方法,原则
  43. 43. ending inventory 期末存货
  44. 44. cost flow assumption 成本流转假设
  45. 45. first-in, first-out method 先进先出法
  46. 46. classify (v.) 分类
  47. 47. characterize (v.) 使…具有特征
  48. 48. inherently (adv.) 本来,固有
  49. 49. to exclude…from…从…中剔除
  50. 50. misleading (adj.) 误导的
  51. 51. at times 有时,时常
  52. 52. to seek the aid of sb. 寻求(某人的)帮助
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